Knowledge of Atlantis

Imhotep

Imhotep was the high priest for sun god Ra.  He was the first architect, engineer, and physician.  He built the first stepped pyramid for king Djoser.  He was also revered as a poet and philosopher.  1400 years later he would become the patron saint of scribes and physicians.

Modern Times

The tombs have been plundered, the bodies removed, and the limestone stripped from the sides.  The nose of the Great Sphinx was destroyed by an outraged Sufi Muslim, Muhammad Sa'im al-Duhr, who was hanged for vandalism, 1378 AD.  He didn't like the fact that local peasants were making offerings to the Sphinx for better crops.  There is also a rumor that a soldier from Napoleon's army knocked it off with a cannon, but the first account is older.

The End of the Pyramids

The power and wealth of the kings declined during the fifth and sixth dynasties and so did the size and quality of the pyramids.  Information about the king's reign was inscribed on the wall of the tombs starting with King Unas, 2375 - 2184 BC.  Peppy II who ruled from 2278 - 2184 BC built the last great pyramid.  With Peppy's death the central government also collapsed with him.  The kingdom went into chaos.  Later kings starting building pyramids again, but never on the scale of the early pyramids.

The Great Pyramids of Giza

The Great Pyramids of Giza, located outside of modern-day Cairo, is the oldest and greatest of the three pyramids of Giza.  It is the only surviving structure of the seven wonders of the world.  The tomb was built for Khufu, who reigned after Sneferu, for 23 years.  The three pyramids built nearby were made for his queens.  His mother's sarcophagus was also found in a tomb nearby.  The pyramid is surrounded by mastabas tombs for relatives and officials to help him in the afterlife.  A pyramid was also built for his son, Khafre, and the Great Sphinx, was built within the his son's pyramid complex.  It is a limestone statue with the head of a lion.  Khafre's son Menkaure's tomb is the smallest and a precursor to future pyramids.  It is estimated that it took twenty years to make these pyramids which would have been most of Khufu's reign.

Prior to Pyramids

Starting around 2950 BC royal tombs were carved into rock and covered with a mastabas, flat-roofed rectangular structure.  The oldest discovered pyramids were built around 2630 BC for King Djoser.  The architect Imhotep, started to build a mastaba and made it into a 204 foot six step stone building, the tallest of its day.  The architect surrounded it with temples, shrines, and even a courtyard.

The Red Pyramid at Dahshur, built for Sneferu, 2613 - 2589 BC, was made from red limestone blocks.  It is the first true pyramid with a smooth side opposed to the stepped structures build prior to this time.

Pharaohs

When a Pharaoh dies a little piece of his spirit, the ka, remains behind and the Pyramids were build to protect that.  The body was mummified and items he would need were buried with him to take to the afterlife where he became Osiris, the god of the dead.  A cult worshipped the king after his death and officials and priests were buried near him.  The new pharaoh would become Horus, the falcon-god, the protector of the sun-god, Ra.

The Letter J

"J, j" is for Joke

J is the tenth letter of the English alphabet and a consonant.  It has a ja sound.

The number 6

The hex

The first perfect number six can be divided by one, two, and three which total six.

Six is found in snowflakes, quartz, graphite, hexagons of carbon atoms.

There are six directions in three dimensions:  forward, backward, left, right, up, and down.

The Pythagorean triangle 3-4-5 has an area of 6.

Activity

Journal

The pyramids were tombs filled with items the king would need in the afterlife.  What would you like to take with you when you go?

Onward to

Pharaohs and the Pyramids

Divide 3 loaves between 5 men. They each must receive the same amount of bread. Each fraction of a loaf must be 1 over a number and no two fractions given to one man can repeat.
  1. What am I?

  2. Each receive 1/3 + 1/4 + 1/4
    Each receive 1/5 + 1/6 + 1/11 + 1/30 + 1/55
    Each receive 1/3 + 1/5 + 1/15
    Each receive 1/3 + 2/3